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- Mark 1–8 (Fall 2014)
- Mark 9–16 (Fall 2014)
- Galatians (Fall 2014)
- 1 Peter
- 2 Peter–Jude
- 1–3 John
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This is fantastic!
Originally posted on Zwinglius Redivivus:
Take advantage of this.
For those of you who missed the live lecture, here’s Rudolf Bultmann speaking on “The Concept of Freedom in Christianity and Classical Antiquity” (mp3, 39mb, 43:00). From Princeton Theological Seminary, 1951.
You’ll be listening to the greatest New Testament exegete of the 20th or 21st centuries.
“Exegesis is the only science in which everyone considers himself competent…to judge without special studies and to dispute every point without consulting those who spend their lives at this hard task.”
There can be no doubt that in his frequent use of the passive as a circumlocution for the divine activity, Jesus followed the style of apocalyptic. We may not, however, put the connection between the two in any stronger terms. For Jesus accords to the “the divine passive” and incomparably greater place than is given in apocalyptic. He uses it not only in apocalyptic sayings in the strict sense (e.g. about the last judgment and the eschatological division), but also—enlarging its scope—to describe God’s gracious action in the present: even now God forgives, even now he unveils the mystery of his reign, even now he fulfills his promise, even now he hears prayers, even now he gives the spirit, even now he sends messengers and protects them, whereas he delivers up the one who has been sent. All these “divine passives” announce the presence of the time of salvation, albeit in a veiled way, for the consummation of the world has dawned only in a veiled form. The extension of the “divine passive” beyond purely future apocalyptic sayings, which has been carried out so widely, is connected with the central part of Jesus’ preaching and is one of the clearest characteristics of his way of speaking.
New Testament Theology, Vol. 1: The Proclamation of Jesus, 14
29 Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, ἐξὸν εἰπεῖν μετὰ παρρησίας πρὸς ὑμᾶς περὶ τοῦ πατριάρχου Δαυὶδ ὅτι καὶ ἐτελεύτησεν καὶ ἐτάφη, καὶ τὸ μνῆμα αὐτοῦ ἔστιν ἐν ἡμῖν ἄχρι τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης. 30 προφήτης οὖν ὑπάρχων καὶ εἰδὼς ὅτι ὅρκῳ ὤμοσεν αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς ἐκ καρποῦ τῆς ὀσφύος αὐτοῦ καθίσαι ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον αὐτοῦ, 31 προϊδὼν ἐλάλησεν περὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τοῦ Χριστοῦ ὅτι οὔτε ἐγκατελείφθη εἰς ᾅδην οὔτε ἡ σὰρξ αὐτοῦ εἶδεν διαφθοράν. 32 τοῦτον τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀνέστησεν ὁ θεός, οὗ πάντες ἡμεῖς ἐσμεν μάρτυρες· 33 τῇ δεξιᾷ οὖν τοῦ θεοῦ ὑψωθείς, τήν τε ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου λαβὼν παρὰ τοῦ πατρός, ἐξέχεεν τοῦτο ὃ ὑμεῖς [καὶ] βλέπετε καὶ ἀκούετε. 34 οὐ γὰρ Δαυὶδ ἀνέβη εἰς τοὺς οὐρανούς, λέγει δὲ αὐτός·
εἶπεν [ὁ] κύριος τῷ κυρίῳ μου· κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου,
35 ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου.
36 ἀσφαλῶς οὖν γινωσκέτω πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραὴλ ὅτι καὶ κύριον αὐτὸν καὶ χριστὸν ἐποίησεν ὁ θεός, τοῦτον τὸν Ἰησοῦν ὃν ὑμεῖς ἐσταυρώσατε.
Guthrie, George H.
The Structure of Hebrews: A Text-Linguistic Analysis
Baker Academic: 1998. Pg 161.
Chapter One: History of Investigation
Guthrie begins his study with a History of Investigation. He starts with a brief analysis on some of the earliest attempts to structure Hebrews and moves on to the medieval period and through the time of the Reformation. Next, Guthrie focus on the works of eighteenth and nineteenth century scholars, specifically the work of John Albert Bengel. Whereas previous attempts at structuring Hebrews divided Hebrews into two parts, ch. 1–10 and 11–11, Bengel’s bipartite division was more complex. Within his two-part division Bengel saw a further subdivision of the structure of Hebrews, a subdivision that highlighted certain features in Hebrews: the shift between exposition and exhortation, the use of key OT texts in the development of the Auctor’s thought, and the uses of key words in the Hebrews.
The twentieth century likewise saw a number of attempts at outlining and structuring the letter to the Hebrews. Three of the most influential studies on the structure of Hebrews were:
Leon Vaganay, “Le Plan de L’Épître aux Hébreux,” in Memorial Lagrange.
Albert Vanhoye, La structure littéraire de l’Épître aux Hébreux.
Wolfgang Nauck, “Zum Aufbau des Hebräerbriefes,” in Jedentum, Urchristentum, Kirche: Festschrift für Joachim Jeremias.
Building on the previous study of Thien (“Analyse de L’Épître aux Hébreux,” RB 11 ), Leon Vaganay’s “Le Plan de L’Épître aux Hébreux” is considered the first study on the structure of Hebrews from the approach of a modern literary analysis. Vaganay’s main contribuition to the discussion of the structure of Hebrews was his focus on mot-crochets (hook words). These hook words were used by Auctor to connect one section to another, in effect causing a transition from one point to another.
Albert Vanhoye’s La structure littéraire de l’Épître aux Hébreux is perhaps the most influential work on the structure of Hebrews. Building on the work of his predecessors, Vanhoye noted “five literary devices the author [of Hebrews] used to mark the beginnings and ending of sections in the book.” These five literary devices are:
The Announcement of the Subject
Change in Genre
Vanhoye’s study utilizes each of these five literary devices to trace the structure of Hebrews. He concludes that Hebrews can be structured into five sections, not counting the introduction (1.1-4) and conclusion (13.20-21).
Guthrie finishes his discussion of influential proponents with the work of Wolfgang Nauck and his work “Zum Aufbau des Hebräerbriefes.” Nauck main contribution is his tripartite structure of Hebrews: 1.1–4.13; 4.14–10.31; 10.32–13.17. Guthrie summarizes Nauck’s outline of Hebrews as “discourse with three main divisions, each marked at the beginning and end with parallel passages” (18-19).
Chapter one’s history of investigation concludes with a state of affairs on the current state of scholarship in regards to structure. Guthrie notes that while there have been a number of attempts to structure Hebrews, nevertheless we still remain without a consensus.